The eyes

The eyes

The eyes form a highly sensitive sensory organ that serves to perceive light stimuli and transmits corresponding impulses via the optic nerve to the visual center in the brain, where the impulses are processed into images. The eye is often only associated with the eyeball, the front area of ​​which is shaped by the cornea, conjunctiva, iris and pupil. The lens, which is used for focusing, lies behind the pupil. The interior of the eyeball is formed by the so-called vitreous. On the opposite side of the pupil is the retina in the eyeball, which converts the light stimuli into nerve impulses. It is already part of the visual pathways, which also include the optic nerve and optic tract. Also part of the eye are the externally visible eyelids and eyelashes as well as the hidden tear ducts.

The eyeball is extremely sensitive, which is why it is particularly protected by the surrounding muscle, bone and connective tissue structures, and on the other hand it is necessary to regularly moisten the surface with the tear fluid to flush out dust and other foreign bodies. The eyelid reflex - which is also intended to prevent foreign objects from entering the eye - plays a special role here. The cornea on the front of the eyeball can be relatively easily damaged or scratched by pointed objects, but also by small fragments or grains of sand. In addition to impaired vision, an uncomfortable scratching when closing the eyelid is often found here. In the worst case, not only the cornea, but also the rest of the eyeball (for example, the vitreous) is damaged by the penetration of objects with greater force. Surgical intervention to save the eye is usually necessary as soon as possible, although this too cannot always prevent blindness.

In addition to damage caused by penetrating foreign bodies, numerous diseases can lead to eye damage. For example, conjunctivitis and corneal inflammation should be mentioned here, which are particularly noticeable through reddening of the eyes and itchy eyes. However, the broad spectrum of eye infections also includes inflammatory eye diseases, which in the worst case are accompanied by a complete loss of vision. In addition to the inflammation, cataracts and glaucoma are further possible eye diseases. Damage to the retina, such as macular degeneration or retinal detachment, can also occur. Furthermore, diseases of the optic nerve can sometimes be identified, which in turn are associated with impaired vision. In general, a visit to an ophthalmologist is recommended in the event of sudden vision problems, since serious illnesses can be considered as the cause of the symptoms.

Diseases of the internal organs are also sometimes reflected in the eyes, such as in the case of liver disease and the subsequent development of jaundice (jaundice). Yellow eyes are a possible indication of damage to the organ. In naturopathy, the connections between the health of the patient and the eyes are taken up primarily in the context of the so-called iris diagnosis. This method, which is not without controversy, is primarily used to determine the general constitution, but iris diagnosis is also used to determine acute symptoms. (fp)

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(Image 1: BVpix / fotolia.com)

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